California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1,600 judges (the federal system has only about 840). California also has several important seaports. At about 10,500 feet (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star. Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the "California 100 Company", due to a majority of their members being from California. The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States. English used in other regions of the United States. , About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks.  California however easily ranked first in production of military ships during the war (transport, cargo, [merchant ships] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships) at drydock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area.  Privateer and explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579, landing north of the future city of San Francisco. Shasta to Los Angeles, Time-Lapse Tilt-Shift Portrait of California by Ryan and Sheri Killackey, Sixty Years in Southern California 1853–1913, cities with populations exceeding 100,000, Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front, California State Mining and Mineral Museum, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument, University of California Natural Reserve System, Sweeney Granite Mountains Desert Research Center, Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador), Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua), Indigenous people during De Soto's travels, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=California&oldid=1002591978, States and territories established in 1850, States of the West Coast of the United States, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles needing additional references from September 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 1997, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2003, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, Articles with failed verification from March 2015, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from May 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2002, Articles containing potentially dated statements from January 2018, Protected areas of California articles without parameters, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The research university system in the state is the, Total Non farm Employment (2016): 14,600,349, Total employer establishments (2016): 922,477, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 04:21.  After World War II, California's economy greatly expanded due to strong aerospace and defense industries, whose size decreased following the end of the Cold War. In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006. Marsh had been forced against his will to join Micheltorena's army. Disclaimer: The purpose of this blog is not intended to induce or promote any insider trading or manipulation activity. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively.  Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality on July 1, 2011.. These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records. The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851). California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems: California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. The missions, which controlled most of the best land in the state, were secularized by 1834 and became the property of the Mexican government. Ira M. Sheskin and Arnold Dashefsky, "Jewish Population of the United States, 2006". The United States consulate had also been located in Monterey, under consul Thomas O. Larkin. The Russian settlements associated with Fort Ross were spread from Point Arena to Tomales Bay.. Depiction of the 1869 completion of the first transcontinental railway. In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States Congress in 2007. From the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States and the future Canada arrived in Northern California. Property tax increases are capped at 2% annually or the rate of inflation (whichever is lower), per Proposition 13. In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, with the first phase of construction estimated to cost $64.2 billion.. , In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other state in the nation. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate. The 1932 and 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s. The Spanish colonization began decimating the natives through epidemics of various diseases for which the indigenous peoples had no natural immunity, such as measles and diphtheria. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during at least the last 13,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS (AM) in the Bay Area, was founded in 1909. California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures.  Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so.  Including Los Angeles, four of the top 15 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco (13th). California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise.  The indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct ethnic groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.  After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California. Energy Information Administration (EIA)", California OKs new transmission for renewables, "SCE Unveils Largest Battery Energy Storage Project in North America", "How a nuclear stalemate left radioactive waste stranded on a California beach", "Opinion: California's San Onofre nuclear plant is a Chernobyl waiting to happen", "Nuclear power industry sees opening for revival", "Minnesota House says no to new nuclear power plants", "California Is Tops in Worst Roads—Pulse of the Bay", "19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems (1984–2008)", "The San Francisco—Oakland Bay Bridge Facts at a glance", "Pasadena Freeway getting a new look and a new name", "L.A.'s Famous Four-Level Freeway Interchange, 'The Stack', Turns 58", "State of California—Department of Motor Vehicles, Statistics for Publication, January Through December 2010", "California new-car sales up 13.1 percent in 2010", "Calif. Amtrak ridership rising on state trains", "Plan for high-speed rail system released", "§ 2 of Article III of the California Constitution", "§ 1 of Article V of the California Constitution", "§ 1 of Article IV of the California Constitution", "§ 1 of Article VI of the California Constitution", "Article II of the California Constitution", "Article V of the California Constitution", "Calif. California is the third-largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. , The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences. , The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula of Baja California and to Alta California, the region that became the present-day state of California. This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders. Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Our top-rated real estate agents in 95051 are local experts and are ready to answer your questions about properties, neighborhoods, schools, and the newest listings for sale in 95051 . 22423 Jeux Gratuits pour Mobile, Tablette et Smart TV  As of September 2010[update], 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. , An energy crisis in 2001 led to rolling blackouts, soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states. The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat. Fish and Wildlife Service. On August 5, 1950, a nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber carrying a nuclear bomb crashed shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States.. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most-densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.  Net immigration from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". California was then easy to reach. More than 1,700 tons of radioactive waste are stored at San Onofre, which sits in an area where there is a record of past tsunamis.  Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. , With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and Proposition 55 in 2016, California now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000 (though the top brackets are only temporary until Proposition 55 expires at the end of 2030). All charts and information can be obtained freely from the public internet. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial.  In terms of Purchasing power parity (PPP), it is larger than all but eight countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia).  The establishment of the Spanish systems of government and social structure, which the Spanish settlers had brought with them, also technologically and culturally overwhelmed the societies of the earlier indigenous peoples.  The state of California and some California cities, including Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco, have adopted sanctuary policies. San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. Welcome to Markdown Monday. Fifty-seven percent came from Asian countries versus 22% from Latin American countries.  According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes.. California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state. Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal, Cali, Calif, Califas, and US-CA. Total Population by Sex in 2009 and Sex Ratio by Country in 2009", "About Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services", "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000", "Jurupa Valley Becomes California's 482nd City", "Jurupa Valley: Rushing to meet a July 1 incorporation", "City and Town Population Totals: 2010-2018", "OMB Bulletin No. A remnant of Pleistocene-era Lake Corcoran, Tulare Lake dried up by the early 20th century after its tributary rivers were diverted for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses. There are about 3,400 special districts in California. California's economy, with a gross state product of $3.2 trillion as of 2019, is the largest sub-national economy in the world.  Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while Hispanic and Asian populations have grown.  The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the state. The Republic's only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. , As of April 2003[update], 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. , According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination):, By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race). California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water. , California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy. Guests will not be admitted. Users Online: 139. Former U.S. senator Kamala Harris, a native, former district attorney from San Francisco, former attorney general of California, resigned on January 18, 2021 to assume her role as the current Vice President-elect of the United States. California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities.  The military action which first brought Alvarado to power had momentarily declared California to be an independent state, and had been aided by Anglo-American residents of California, including Isaac Graham. Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.S. Presidents, respectively. Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River. Every week we publish all the $x.97 clearance items available on Costco.com all in one post.  When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces.  One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities.  It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built.. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high. In 1804 it was included in Alta California province, within the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica, the state flower) also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.  In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force..  Immigration from Latin American countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants now coming from Asia. Party registration by county(October 2018): California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter. In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population.  However, as of 2002[update], Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education. The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs.  Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California.  Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. We hope you enjoy - and we hope you post your own deals from your local Costco so everyone knows about them. The first Europeans to explore the California coast were the members of a Spanish sailing expedition led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo; they entered San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542, and reached at least as far north as San Miguel Island. As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers. Shop Costco.com for electronics, computers, furniture, outdoor living, appliances, jewelry and more. Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), California sent gold shipments eastwards to Washington in support of the Union. Ignoring his superiors, during the battle, he signaled the other side for a parlay. , Coordinates: 37°N 120°W / 37°N 120°W / 37; -120 (State of California), This article is about the State of California. In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.  The Agriculture sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S history. , Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. Use filters to narrow your search by price, square feet, beds, and baths to find homes that fit your criteria. All these factors lead to an enormous demand for water; in total numbers, California is the largest consumer of water in North America. The population burgeoned with United States citizens, Europeans, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. California has also experienced disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. We found a whopping 91 online clearance items for you this week! California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. The four major American television broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC) all have production facilities and offices in the state. The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley.  Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. They were robust of body with strong passionate hearts and great virtue. California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities. As a result of Marsh's actions, they abandoned the fight, Micheltorena was defeated, and California-born Pio Pico was returned to the governorship. The brown haze known as "smog" has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust. The state is organized into three branches of government—the executive branch consisting of the governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts.  In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue. Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California government as a genocide. The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from 1777 until 1845.  During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000.  On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however the state's debt remains at $132 billion. In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. 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