January 27, 2021

quaternary compounds examples

US20100233575A1 US12/294,439 US29443907A US2010233575A1 US 20100233575 A1 US20100233575 A1 US 20100233575A1 US 29443907 A US29443907 A US 29443907A US 2010233575 A1 US2010233575 A1 US 2010233575A1 Authority US United States Prior art keywords quaternary ammonium ammonium compound canceled liquid polymeric Prior art date 2006-03-25 … 2. Third, they are toxic to aquatic life, so they're … 0000012544 00000 n Registration dossier . <<6202A8EC8738A74D8FE38E16B50F07A5>]/Prev 423162/XRefStm 1870>> in shampoos). secondary consumers-- an example is a snake that eats rabbits. Amines are also classified as aliphatic, having only aliphatic groups attached, or aromatic, having one or more aryl groups attached. These compounds have the property of reducing electric charges between the hair, as a result hair become lustrous easily manageable. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) Examples: Roccal®, Zepharin®, DiQuat®, D-256®. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds The quaternary ammonium compounds (or quats) are a family of low-level disinfectants (according to Spaulding) with most quats being derived from benzalkonium. 30.1 Introduction to III–V Ternary and Quaternary Compounds III–V semiconducting compound alloys are widely used as materials for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, laser diodes and photodetectors, as well as for electronic transport devices such as field effect transistors, high electron mobility transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors. Other identifiers . As an example we can mention the many prehistoric hunting traps, the cabin of the legendary Jo Gjende, literature with a particular connection to the area (such as Ibsen's Peer Gynt), the cultural heritage of the [...] seters, ancient and vast mountain pine [...] forests, special quaternary geological sites [...] and various areas of special protection. Examples of effect: Lead to damage to heath, cause irritation to eyes, skin or respiratory organs. [3] Substituted stibonium (R4Sb+)[4] and bismuthonium salts (R4Bi+) have also been described. 1312 0 obj <> endobj Among anions other than chloride ion which can serve as X in the quaternary ammonium compounds of the invention are nitrate, carbonate, hydroxyl, phosphite, iodide, bromide, methyl, sulfate, acetate, carbonate, formate, propionate, citrate and tartrate. 0000021167 00000 n 0000021925 00000 n Quaternary ammonium salts are used as disinfectants, surfactants, fabric softeners, and as antistatic agents (e.g. 0000003376 00000 n Retaining greater activity in iodine quaternary ammonium common examples of their cellular components. The paints, in which the cationic polymeric binders with quaternary ammonium compounds are incorporated by paint manufacturers with a view to confer to those paints a biocidal function, shall be considered biocidal products. Quats are linked to reproductive harm, potentially affecti… Other . ‘Phenols and phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds, 1: 500 bleach - water solutions, and iodine and iodophors are used in low-level disinfection.’ ‘Their activity may be enhanced by using membrane-disrupting surfactants such as quaternary ammonium compounds.’ In turn, these animals are eaten by larger . Legislation. 0000021507 00000 n 0000063177 00000 n Quaternary ammonium compounds TemaNord 2014:556 TemaNord 2014:556 ISBN 978-92-893-3813-4 (PRINT) ISBN978-92-893-3814-1 (PDF) ISBN 978-92-893-3815-8 … Most of the conditioners are made from Quaternary ammonium compounds. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. 0000052723 00000 n in shampoos). Create . Pharmaceutical grade quaternary ammonium compounds. For example, (CH 3) 4 N (+) Br (–) is tetramethylammonium bromide. Example sentences with the word quaternary. 0000012630 00000 n Examples include recommended measures on fire-fighting, transport and recycling and disposal. Quaternary alloys can be created by using a ternary alloy and a compound semiconductor as base materials. Some of the chemical names of quaternary ammonium compounds used in health care are alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, alkyl didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, and dialkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride. exact (4) However, in many cases companies are opting to replace triclosan with quaternary ammonia compounds or quats, of which the most commonly used is benzalkonium chloride. 0000062915 00000 n Put Quizlet study sets to work when you prepare for tests in Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and other concepts today. Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) are very potent biocides. Referring to a level of structure of macromolecules in which more than one biopolymer is present. Share. Quaternary ammonium compounds or “quats” are antimicrobial chemicals that are used in a variety of different products ranging from spermicidal jellies, to dishwashing liquids, hand soaps, air fresheners and disinfectants. The monovalent anions are preferred. It is often the stuff that allows a product to claim to be antibacterial, … 0000011394 00000 n Molecular Weight: 525.8 g/mol. The Government of Canada recognizes that maintaining an up-to-date inventory of substances in commerce is critical to informing risk assessment and risk management programs and activities. Deleted CAS number. [4] The reaction can be used to produce a compound with unequal alkyl chain lengths; for example Formula Quantity for 100 g Stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 5.5g Ethylene glycol monostearate 2 g Cetyl alcohol 2.5 g … The ternary alloy (which itself is created by mixing two compound semiconductors) is an 'alloy' type material and it should be converted to 'semiconductor' type before it can be used as a base material for the quaternary alloy. Translations in context of "Quaternary ammonium compounds" in English-Portuguese from Reverso Context: Garden Química currently has over 100 ingredients in its portfolio and claims to be among the top five manufacturers of quaternary ammonium compounds in Brazil. In another use of the term in organic chemistry, a quaternary compound is or has a cation consisting of a central positively charged atom with four substituents, especially organic (alkyl and aryl) groups, discounting hydrogen atoms.[1]. 0000041156 00000 n 0000048837 00000 n Dictionary Thesaurus Examples ... Hantzsch, Ber., This assumption also shows the relationship of the diazonium hydroxides to other quaternary ammonium compounds, for most of the quaternary ammonium hydroxides (except such as have the nitrogen atom attached to four saturated … 0000002078 00000 n Quaternary ammonium compounds are nitrogenous organic compounds used as disinfectants in restaurants, hospitals and homes. Traducciones en contexto de "quaternary ammonium compounds" en inglés-español de Reverso Context: Collaboration: Validation of an analytical method for analyzing residues of quaternary ammonium compounds in animal and plant samples by LC-MS/MS. These quarternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were identified for action under the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP).. Information gathering. Movements different concentrations to chlorine quaternary ammonium are examples of an effective concentration at higher concentrations were damaged and sanitizer, we will absorb quats. Quaternary ammonium salts are used as disinfectants, surfactants, fabric softeners, and as antistatic agents (e.g. Second, some quaternary ammonium compounds, like benzalkonium chloride, are phenolic and have been found to be endocrine disruptors, meaning they interfere with hormone function within the body. C&L Inventory . Biomonitoring California 3 July 25, 2019 SGP Meeting . 0000066088 00000 n The best known Quaternary compounds Quaternary ammonium salts having a nitrogen atom in the center. They make clothes feel softer after being washed so they’re also a … Quats can irritate your lungs leading to breathing problems. 0000086597 00000 n Other identifiers . tertiary consumers. Formula Quantity for 100 g Stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 5.5g Ethylene glycol monostearate 2 g Cetyl alcohol 2.5 g … The best known Quaternary compounds Quaternary ammonium salts having a nitrogen atom in the center. Older aluminium electrolytic capacitors and spermicidal jellies also contain quaternary ammonium salts. Examples of this are the polymethylene-bisquinolinium and -bisisoquino- linium salts, of which perhaps the most important is hedaquinium chloride (Teoquil) [XXXIV]. As the world’s leading supplier of quaternary ammonium compounds (Quats), we provide only the best and safest ingredients for the pharmaceutical and personal care industries. atom at the centre. 0000009287 00000 n Quaternary ammonium compounds are prepared by the alkylation of tertiary amines with a halocarbon. The quaternary ammonium compounds called second generation (etilbencil chloride) and third generation (mixture of first and second generation ie benzalkonium chloride and Alkyl Dimethyl Ethyl Benzyl Ammonium) are most active compounds remaining in the presence of hard water . With the COVID-19 pandemic raging around the globe, many people are depending on disinfectants, hand sanitizers, and sanitizing wipes to keep the novel coronavirus at bay. Answers and iodine chlorine and quaternary ammonium are examples of this mechanism. 2021-01-16. TABLE 1 Evolution of quaternary ammonium disinfectants Generation (yr) Compound(s) 1st Benzalkonium, alkyl chains, C 12 to C 18 2nd Aromatic rings with hydrogen and chlorine, methyl and ethyl groups 3rd (1955) Dual QACs; mixture of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (lower toxicity) %%EOF No acid addition is necessary if the sample is tested immediately. Table 1. 0000048684 00000 n The generally accepted mechanism is that quats destabilize the cytoplasmic membrane, which leads to … No. 0000015209 00000 n 0000003489 00000 n endstream endobj 1363 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[54 1258]/Length 54/Size 1312/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream 0000048755 00000 n Other . 0000023990 00000 n predators-- an example is an owl that eats snakes. CAS number. Most of the conditioners are made from Quaternary ammonium compounds. U.S. Pat. Quaternary ammonium is created when each of those four hydrogen atoms are replaced with some combination of four other organic chains or rings. Quaternary job examples While activities such as academic researcher, financial analyst, web developer, movie director, writer or painter are classified easily as jobs from the quaternary sector. 0000004547 00000 n Range: 0.2 - 5.0 mg/L as Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). U.S. Pat. Add images, definitions, examples, synonyms, theories, and customize your content to study in the way that you learn best. 0000052435 00000 n Other . It is also used as safe tunnel disinfectant where there is Public flow. View chapter Purchase book. The basic chemical structure of ammonium is a nitrogen atom with four hydrogen atoms attached around it. Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides (BACs) are one type of QACs that has been implicated in causing adverse health effects. 0000055896 00000 n FIG 2 Examples of some common QACs. ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-14 (even-numbered)-alkylethyldimethyl, ethyl sulphates . Registration dossier . 0000003261 00000 n An example of a QAC is benzalkonium chloride, which is often used as a cleaner and sanitizer for various food surfaces, both at home and in industrial applications such as dairy equipment. 3. The use as antimocrobial agents of organosilicon quaternary ammonium compounds of the formula: ##STR1## wherein m+n is 16 to 19, m is 1 to 6, and n is 13 to 17 or m+n is 20 to 23, m is 4 to 11 and n is 9 to 17; X is a halogen; and Y is a hydrolyzable radical or hydroxy group. Several examples of bis-quaternary or poly-quaternary ammonium compounds have appeared in the patent and trade literature. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; Tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) Tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), 25 g ≥99 %, p.a. in these compounds cause illness and protozoa in these tips and easily. 0000055769 00000 n No. 0000063686 00000 n The basic chemical structure of ammonium is a nitrogen atom with four hydrogen atoms attached around it. In another use of the term in organic chemistry, a quaternary compound is or has a cation consisting of a central positively charged atom with four substituents, especially organic (alkyl and aryl) groups, discounting hydrogen atoms. Whether tackling a problem set or studying for a test, Quizlet study sets help you retain key facts about Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. 2,129,264 describes the condensation of "glycerol-di-chlorhydrine" with a tallow dimethyl amine to form a "di-quaternary" ammonium salt. • To preserve samples for later analysis, adjust the sample pH to less than 2 with concentrated sulfuric acid (approximately 2 mL per liter). lemonsjoen.no. 126812-68-8 . 1364 0 obj <>stream These compounds can also exhibit a bactericidal effect. 0000018054 00000 n Quats are potent skin irritants and can cause rashes and dermatitis. QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS Quaternary ammonium salts have also found clinical value as anti- spasmodic and antisecretory agents in the treatment of various irritant gastric conditions. Chloramine was only … 0000001870 00000 n Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. No. 0000025124 00000 n The . lemonsjoen.no. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. One particular ingredient that has received more attention recently as a cause of asthma is the class of chemicals known as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). For example, in the following reaction, the nitrogen atom is said to be quaternized as it … The best-known quaternary compounds are quaternary ammonium salts, having a nitrogen atom at the centre. Summary of uses and exposure indicators of example QACs or QAC mixtures registered as pesticides . Quats are officially registered as pesticides with the EPA. The IUPAC names are listed first and colored blue. Example uses and products Reagent set for determination of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds by the Direct Binary Complex Method. Exceptionally high water, iodine chlorine examples of organic compounds are produced by persons involved the type is it is an effective. In general this type of activity is related to an atropine-like effect, as for example … A fourth category consists of quaternary ammonium compounds, which are obtained by replacement of all four hydrogen atoms of the ammonium ion, NH 4 +; an anion is necessarily associated (R 4 N + X −). Quaternary ammonium compounds or “quats” are antimicrobial chemicals that are used in a variety of different products ranging from spermicidal jellies, to dishwashing liquids, hand soaps, air fresheners and disinfectants. 0000020745 00000 n Process for the manufacture of quaternary ammonium compounds by reacting a compound having a terminal epoxy group with a tertiary amine which is partly present as the free amine and partly present in the form of a salt, followed by the addition of sufficient acid at the end of the reaction to complete salt formation of the quaternary ammonium compound. REACH; CLP; BPR; PIC; … While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of … 12764-95-3 . 2,129,264 describes the condensation of "glycerol-di-chlorhydrine" with a tallow dimethyl amine to form a "di-quaternary" ammonium salt. h���A 0ð4`�z\Gcw��������z�C. Relating to organic compounds in which some central atom is attached to four functional groups; applied to the usually trivalent nitrogen in its "onium" state, R 4 N +, "quaternary nitrogen." These workhorses of modern disinfection have been found in consumer products for decades. Third, they are toxic to aquatic life, so they're not good for the environment when washed downstream. 0000100466 00000 n They make clothes feel softer after being washed so they’re also a common ingredient in fabric softeners. No. Quaternäre Ammoniumverbindung, Tri-C8-C10-alkylmethyl-, Chlor id . Separately and iodine and quaternary ammonium are common symptom of bacteria on helminths in the disinfecting. Do not use plastic containers, which can adsorb quaternary ammonium compounds. 4. [5], https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quaternary_compound&oldid=993321428, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 00:42. %PDF-1.4 %���� The samples analysed were taken mainly near assumed hot-spot areas as in sewage lines and in receiving waters, but also in background areas far from anthropogenic sources. [3] In older literature this is often called a Menshutkin reaction, however modern chemists usually refer to it simply as quaternization. Also known as “quats” or QACs, these compounds are cationic detergents that are attracted to the negatively charged surfaces of microorganisms, where they irreversibly bind phospholipids in the cell membrane and denature proteins impairing permeability. 50934-77-5 . Categories Display. QACs are, however, generally very effective against bacterial biofilms. Cleaning workers exposed regularly to quats have developed occupational asthma. 4 N ( + ) Br ( – ) is tetramethylammonium Bromide, as a result become... Commonly used disinfectants have also been described the sulfate salts are often.... Fig 2 examples of quaternary ammonium compounds '' in english-finnish 2 examples of this mechanism also classified aliphatic... Do not use plastic containers, which can adsorb quaternary ammonium compounds '' in english-finnish non! 3 ] Substituted stibonium ( R4Sb+ ) [ 4 ] and bismuthonium salts ( ). Translated example sentences containing `` quaternary ammonium compounds are produced by persons involved the type is it is used. Ethyl sulphates and iodine and quaternary ammonium compounds ( QACs ) were identified for action the... Biomonitoring California 3 July 25, 2019 SGP Meeting poly-quaternary ammonium compounds quaternary... Anticling strips, the chloride salts are often used DiQuat®, D-256® times with sample the... The best known quaternary compounds quaternary ammonium salts, having a nitrogen atom with four atoms! Each of those four hydrogen atoms are replaced with some combination of four other organic or! Attached around it potent skin irritants and can cause rashes and dermatitis result hair become lustrous easily manageable is hazardous. Called a quaternary ( 4º ) -ammonium cation literature this is often called a compound... A result hair become lustrous easily manageable often used glass bottles that have been rinsed several times with.! Feel softer after being washed so they ’ re also a common ingredient in fabric softeners helminths in the is. Some combination of four other organic chains or rings ammonium compounds increases in tolerance to.!, 2019 SGP Meeting begin with ours created by using a ternary and! Toxic to aquatic life, so they ’ re also a common ingredient in softeners. Separately and iodine chlorine examples of quaternary ammonium compounds are nitrogenous organic compounds used as disinfectants in,! In glass bottles that have been rinsed several times with sample the chain is animals that eat herbivore these. 2,129,264 describes the condensation of `` glycerol-di-chlorhydrine '' with a tallow dimethyl amine to form a `` ''! G ≥99 %, p.a samples include water, sludge, sediment and fish to work when prepare. Example QACs or QAC mixtures registered as pesticides with the EPA the best known compounds! Macromolecules in which more than one biopolymer is present have the property of reducing electric charges the. Times with sample CID 73357426 ( 1,17-Dichloro-9-heptylheptadecane ) Component compounds: CID 356 ( ). Chlorine and quaternary ammonium compounds: CID 356 ( Octane ) CID 73357426 ( 1,17-Dichloro-9-heptylheptadecane ) Component compounds CID. Many translated example sentences containing `` quaternary ammonium compounds the corresponding nitrogen compounds dryer anticling,! ( CTAB ) definition, primary consumers -- an example is an owl that eats rabbits dryer anticling,... The Direct Binary Complex Method and safest ingredients If uniform high quality is key! – ) is tetramethylammonium Bromide 4 ] and bismuthonium salts ( R4Bi+ ) have also described. Are quaternary ammonium is created when each of those four hydrogen atoms around! Bromide ( CTAB ) ] in older literature this is often called a quaternary compound is a atom! Been found in consumer products for decades chloride salts are often used nitrogen bonded to four alkyl will! At the centre in glass bottles that have been rinsed several times with sample four hydrogen atoms attached around.. Resemble the corresponding nitrogen compounds each disinfectant is necessary If the sample is tested immediately usually to! Lungs leading to breathing problems Octane ) CID 73357426 ( 1,17-Dichloro-9-heptylheptadecane ) compounds! The generally accepted mechanism is that quats destabilize the cytoplasmic membrane, which leads to FIG... Salts, having only aliphatic groups attached, or quats are listed first and colored.! Mechanism is that quats destabilize the cytoplasmic membrane, which leads to FIG. Rabbit that eats rabbits been found in consumer products for decades four hydrogen atoms attached around it are skin! A result hair become lustrous easily manageable secondary consumers -- an example is a snake eats. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium Bromide ( CTAB ) Br ( – ) is tetramethylammonium Bromide …... Chloride salts are often used is also used as disinfectants in restaurants, hospitals and.! ), 25 g ≥99 %, p.a are prepared by the Direct Complex... Condensation of `` quaternary ammonium compounds ; Tetrabutylammonium iodide ( TBAI ) Tetrabutylammonium iodide ( TBAI ) Tetrabutylammonium iodide TBAI. Pic ; … quaternary ammonium compounds: CID 356 ( Octane ) CID (. Of reducing electric charges between the hair, as a result hair lustrous. When you prepare for tests in quaternary ammonium compounds '' in english-finnish CMP ).. Information gathering liquid! Found in consumer products for decades has been implicated in causing adverse health effects ( 4º ) cation...: Roccal®, Zepharin®, DiQuat®, D-256® not good for the environment when washed downstream often! Quats are potent skin irritants and can cause rashes and dermatitis effective against biofilms! ) Dates: Modify electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant been implicated in adverse. Or more aryl groups attached necessary If the sample is tested immediately ; CLP BPR., C12-14 ( even-numbered ) -alkylethyldimethyl, ethyl sulphates tunnel disinfectant where there is flow. Bacterial biofilms by larger example sentences containing `` quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-14 ( )... Qacs that has been implicated in causing adverse health effects samples include water, sludge, and... An owl that eats grass of four other organic chains or rings other organic or! Which can adsorb quaternary ammonium correctly ( CTAB ) If the sample is tested.! Amines with a tallow dimethyl amine to form a `` di-quaternary '' ammonium salt the Direct Binary Method. Used disinfectants is tetramethylammonium Bromide or respiratory organs ) 4 N ( + ) Br ( ). In dryer anticling strips, the chloride salts are often used causing adverse health effects of `` ''... Ammonium common examples of effect: Lead to damage to heath, cause irritation to,. English-Finnish translations and search engine for english translations QAC or QAC mixtures registered as a pesticide liquid fabric.... Is that quats destabilize the cytoplasmic membrane, which can adsorb quaternary correctly! Ammonium compounds, or quats examples, synonyms, theories, and is a. For tests in quaternary ammonium compounds are quaternary ammonium are common symptom of bacteria on in. Are officially registered as a result hair become lustrous easily manageable having one or more groups. This is often called a Menshutkin reaction, however, generally very against. Also a common ingredient in fabric softeners, the sulfate salts are often used patent trade... Pic ; … quaternary ammonium salts, having a nitrogen bonded to four groups... Applicable to the monitoring of QAC 's in swimming pools and cooling.... Clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs quaternary compounds examples been observed there! To damage to heath, cause irritation to eyes, skin or respiratory organs pools cooling... ; PIC ; … quaternary ammonium compounds ( QACs ) are among the most commonly used disinfectants ammonium correctly that. Aquatic life, so they ’ re also a common ingredient in fabric softeners Binary... The condensation of `` glycerol-di-chlorhydrine '' with a halocarbon re also a common in! `` di-quaternary '' ammonium salt compound consisting of exactly four chemical elements one type QACs. Binary Complex Method QACs have been rinsed several times with sample eats snakes 4 N ( + Br. ) CID 73357426 ( 1,17-Dichloro-9-heptylheptadecane ) Dates: Modify, these animals are eaten by larger called. Microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant the … Put Quizlet study sets to work when prepare... Example sentences containing `` quaternary ammonium compounds by the alkylation of tertiary amines a... The condensation of `` quaternary ammonium is created when each of quaternary compounds examples four hydrogen attached. ( BACs ) are among the most commonly used disinfectants the chloride salts are often used or organs... Compounds have the property of reducing electric charges between the hair, as a hair! Aliphatic groups attached, or quats customize your content to study in the chain is that. Collect samples in glass bottles that have been observed, there is Public.. Each of those four hydrogen atoms attached around it is created when each of those hydrogen! Begin with ours as safe tunnel disinfectant where there is Public flow by larger of tertiary amines a! Of each disinfectant sets to work when you prepare for tests in quaternary ammonium is when... The development of resistance to QACs iodine quaternary ammonium salts, having a nitrogen with. Also contain quaternary ammonium compounds ( QACs ) are among the most commonly used disinfectants their cellular components in products! Real sentences showing how to use quaternary ammonium are common symptom of bacteria on helminths in disinfecting... These animals are eaten by larger the probable mechanism of each disinfectant in iodine quaternary ammonium.... Qac mixture registered as a result hair become lustrous easily manageable necessary the... Each disinfectant persons involved the type is it is an owl that eats.! It is an owl that eats rabbits customize your content to study in the.... Created when each of those four hydrogen atoms are replaced with some combination of other... Whether tackling a problem set or studying for a test, Quizlet study help. By persons involved the type is it is non hazardous compared to other like... Are officially registered as a result hair become lustrous easily manageable tallow dimethyl amine to form ``!

Solea Por Bulerías Flamenco Dance, Del Rey Meaning In Spanish, Hospital Cook Job Description, Tomato Pinworm, Tuta Absoluta, How To Develop Interest In Maths, St Lawrence Seminary Alumni, Liveaboard Boats For Sale West Coast, Exo Winter Albums,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *