January 27, 2021

charles xiv france

[54] Due to this near fatal wound, Bernadotte was invalided to the rear and missed the remainder of the Polish Campaign. If I fall, you will find yourself with 40,000 men at the gates of Paris. [71], Bernadotte as Crown Prince, painting by Fredric Westin, On 2 November 1810 Bernadotte made his solemn entry into Stockholm, and on 5 November he received the homage of the Riksdag of the Estates, and he was adopted by King Charles XIII under the name of "Charles John" (Karl Johan). Greenhill, London. [81][33], The monument outside the Royal Palace in Oslo, He also faced challenges in Norway. Scott, Franklin D. (1962). Choisissez parmi des contenus premium King Charles Xiv John Of Sweden … His fresh troops, reinforced by 30,000 Prussians, joined the fray against the already battered French lines where Swedish forces entered battle in numbers for the first time in the campaign. [27], In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte proposed that Bernadotte head to New France to serve as governor of Louisiana, which was to be transferred back to French control following the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. [61] [33] The democratic process and forces steadily matured under the King's restrained executive power. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. [4] Soon after his birth, Baptiste was added to his name, to distinguish him from his elder brother Jean Évangeliste. Premier peintre du roi pendant la période la plus prospère et la plus glorieuse du règne de Louis XIV, il fut chargé de magnifier par l’art la splendeur et la puissance du souverain. Charles XIV John (Swedish: Karl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, later renamed Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden and the King of Norway (where he was known in Norwegian as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. [119] Upon Charles's death on 5 February 1818, Charles John ascended the throne. In 1810, Bernadotte was unexpectedly elected the heir-presumptive to the childless King Charles XIII of Sweden, thanks to the advocacy of Baron Carl Otto Mörner, a Swedish courtier and obscure member of the Riksdag of the Estates. An alliance was signed with Russia in April 1812, with Great Britain in March 1813—with the British granting a subsidy for the proposed conquest of Norway—and with Prussia in April 1813. Left unsupported by Ney's unexpected movement toward Königsberg, the Russians under Levin August von Bennigsen, passed over to the offensive and attempted to destroy Bernadotte's and Ney's isolated Corps. Charles John, however,…, …1810, when Napoleon’s former marshal, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, was elected heir to the Swedish throne, he showed no hostility toward Russia. His goal, also acquainted with absolutism, was, “one king, one law, one faith;” Furthermore, Louis wanted to promote religious unity, royal dignity, and … He presided over a period of peace and prosperity, and reigned until his death in 1844. [63] However, Bernadotte's praise for the Saxons, as well as his mild and courteous treatment of them while under his command, was never forgotten by the Saxon officers and this would later have disastrous consequences for the French when a whole Saxon division defected to Bernadotte's Army of the North during a key moment of the Battle of Leipzig. In his farewell note to Bernadotte on his way to Italy, Napoleon wrote: "I am going to fling myself once more into the hazards of war. He became king in 1643. [105], Equestrian statue in Stockholm depicting Charles XIV John, His domestic policy particularly focused on promotion of economy and investment in social overhead capital, and the long peace since 1814 led to an increased prosperity for the country. Charles XIV John (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl XIV Johan; born Jean Bernadotte; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1818 until his death. Moreover, none of Napoleon's brothers were interested in going to Sweden and his nephews were too young, as the Swedes did not want the hazards of minority rule in the event King Charles died prematurely. Charles was born in Stockholm during the reign of his grandfather Charles XIV John, he joined the military on 1834, his brother Oscar I got succeeded after the death of Charles John. At a critical moment he ordered Dupas forward to his support; the latter replied that he had orders from the emperor to remain where he was. Barton, D. Plunkett (1921) pp. Although no evidence has been found that he was involved, it is clear that he would have favoured constitutional limitation of the powers of Napoleon, who had in 1799 become the first consul—to all intents and purposes, dictator of France—or even his overthrow. >> << Suède -- 1818-1844 (Charles XIV Jean) Source(s) : Politisches Vermächtniss Seiner Majestät des verstorbenen Königs von Schweden Carl Johann, enthaltend bisher unbekannte Originaldocumente in eigenen Briefen, Noten, Reden, 1844-1845 . Pataki, Allison. [17] When the French forced their way to Lübeck, the city became the target of large-scale looting and rampage by the French soldiers. pp. Charles XIV & III John, also Carl John, Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death.Before he became king, he was also the Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, in Southern Italy, between 1806 and 1810.. During the battle Bernadotte's personal wagon was captured by the Russians and he was accused, by the Cossacks who looted his baggage, of having extorted a large quantity of silver plate from minor German states, however the claim was never substantiated and ran contrary to Bernadotte's reputation. Omissions? Charles XIV John, Swedish Karl Johan, orCarl Johan, original name Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, also called (1806–10) Prince De Ponte-Corvo, (born Jan. 26, 1763, Pau, France—died March 8, 1844, Stockholm, Swed. Mémoires de Louis XIV pour l'instruction du Dauphin (1860) avec Charles Dreyss (1821-1905) comme Éditeur scientifique ... Louis XIV (roi de France, 1638-1715) Voir aussi. After the Peace of Tilsit, in 1808, as well-liked governor of the Hanseatic towns, where he once again proved his administrative and diplomatic abilities,[55] he was to direct the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to naught because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent, which went back to Spain to fight against Napoleon at the start of the Peninsular War. [81][104] He was especially concerned about the conflict between the UK and Russia. His growing fame, however, and his contacts with the radical Jacobins irritated Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès—one of the five members of the government of the Directory that ruled France from 1795 to 1799—who engineered his removal. The palace itself was not completed until 1849, long after the death of Charles John, and was inaugurated by Oscar I. [88][89], In January 1812, French troops suddenly invaded Swedish Pomerania and the island of Rügen. As Bernadotte was brother-in-law to Joseph, and close friends with his other brothers and sisters, Napoleon is thought to have been considering the welfare of his family in the possible event of his death on the battlefield, as well as the future of the country, by leaving his erstwhile rival in a position to seize the reins of government as, of his former rivals, only Bernadotte had the political skill and popularity to maintain the Republic. In January 1798 Bernadotte was expected to succeed Bonaparte in command of the army of Italy but instead was appointed ambassador to Vienna until April, when his mission ended. Bernadotte's Army of the North would continue to guard Berlin and keep watch on Davout's forces in Hamburg while the Allies, in accordance with the plan conceived at Trachenberg, maneuvered toward Napoleon's army at Leipzig. Les meilleures offres pour Louis Xiv Magnifique 1/10 Ecu Aux 3 Couronnes 1710 9 Rennes sont sur eBay Comparez les prix et les spécificités des produits neufs et d'occasion Pleins d'articles en … L’offensive éclair de la France. Folder 1 King Charles XIV John Papers #11006-z, Series: "Charles XIV Papers, 1795-1805." In 1809 a palace revolution had overthrown King Gustav IV of Sweden and had put the aged, childless, and sickly Charles XIII on the throne. Les premiers conseils se tiennent à Versailles dès le 3 septembre. Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, né le 26 janvier 1763 à Pau, mort le 8 mars 1844 à Stockholm passa en l'espace de trente-huit ans, d'un rang de soldat du roi de France, au titre de roi de Suède et de Norvège sous le nom de Charles XIV Jean après avoir été général sous la Convention, ambassadeur puis ministre durant le Directoire, Maréchal d'Empire et prince de l'Empire. The tattoo is finally revealed to read Vive la république ("Long live the Republic") and a Phrygian cap: a highly ironic image and text for the skin of a king. As the union King, Charles XIV John in Sweden and Charles III John in Norway, who succeeded to that title on 5 February 1818 following the death of Charles XIII & II, he was initially popular in both countries. Le corps du roi est autopsié. [122], Template:Grand Masters of the Norwegian Order of Freemasons, "Carl Johan" redirects here. Charles John had been regent and de facto head of state upon his arrival, and took an increasing role in government from 1812 onward, with Charles XIII reduced to a mute witness in government councils following a stroke. Louis XIV, also popularly known as the Sun King (5 September 1638–1 September 1715) was the King of France and King of Navarre from 14 May 1643 until his death. Expand/collapse Charles XIV Papers, 1795-1805. Les rois de France sont indissociables de l'histoire de notre pays. The family name was originally du Poey (or de Pouey), but was changed to Bernadotte – a surname of an ancestress at the beginning of the 17th century. The construction began in 1825, but the Storting halted the funding after the costly foundation was laid and demanded that the appointed architect, Hans Linstow, construct a simpler palace. He was adopted by King Charles XIII under the name of "Charles John" (Karl Johan). At a critical moment an entire Saxon division went over to his army in response to a proclamation released a week prior in which Bernadotte invited the Saxons to join their old commander in defeating Napoleon. With the other Allied armies engaged in battle on 17 October, Bernadotte's army finally crossed the Elbe and joined in the Battle of Leipzig on 19 October. In June he became the military and civil governor of the electorate of Hanover, and while in office he attempted to set up an equitable system of taxation. [31] I Corps then co-operated in the great movement which resulted in the shutting off of Mack in the Battle of Ulm. Alm, Mikael; Johansson, Brittinger (Eds) (2008). Louis XIV est un roi de France né le 5 septembre 1638 (à Saint-Germain-en-Laye) et mort le 1 er septembre 1715 (à Versailles) à l'âge de 76 ans.On l'appelait le Roi soleil.. Napoleon rebuked him for his absence but it became acknowledged that it was not due to Bernadotte, but Berthier's carelessness in dispatching the orderly. This was seen by many as a protest against unnecessary spending and the king's authority. [64], With Bernadotte having returned to Paris, the Walcheren Campaign (July 1809) caused the French ministry in the absence of the emperor to entrust him with the defense of Antwerp with both regular French and Dutch troops along with the National Guard. Bernadotte's troops then captured Salzburg on 30 October. [17], After the Treaty of Campo Formio, Napoleon gave Bernadotte a friendly visit at his headquarters at Udine, but immediately after deprived him of half his division of the army of the Rhine, and commanded him to march the other half back to France. "Sergeant, Marshal and King: Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, 1763-1844". Charles XIV John as Crown Prince of Sweden (François Gérard) ... was needed and a currier was speedily sent from Sweden to France with a Generals uniform and medals. In April 1800, despite his Republican sympathies, Bernadotte was offered, and freely accepted, from April 1800 to 18 August 1801, the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the West in the rebellious Vendée where he successfully restored its tranquility. Soon after his birth 'Baptiste' was added to his name, to distinguish him fr… This time Bernadotte's depleted forces - he had only 6,000 infantry left - broke and fled (Bernadotte's Corps was not the only one to have broken that day, Masséna's troops were also routed by the attack). In 1802 he fell under suspicion of complicity with a group of army officers of republican sympathies who disseminated anti-Bonapartist pamphlets and propaganda from the city of Rennes (the “Rennes plot”). It is also known which part I played in that. He was a king for 72 years. "The Triumph of Neutrality : Bernadotte and European Geopolitics (1810–1844)", Revue D’ Histoire Nordique, No. "[60] Napoleon disregarded these appeals and Bernadotte proceeded with the campaign, commanding mostly foreign troops with few French troops under his command. [4] Subsequently, the Régiment stationed in Besançon, Grenoble, Vienne, Marseille and Île de Ré. He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty. Hårdstedt, Martin (2016). At the age of 17 he enlisted in the French army. [106] During his long reign of 26 years, the population of the Kingdom was so increased that the inhabitants of Sweden alone became equal in number to those of Sweden and Finland before the latter province was torn from the former, the national debt was paid off, a civil and a penal code were proposed for promulgation, education was promoted, agriculture, commerce, and manufactures prospered, and the means of internal communication were increased. The Norwegians refused to recognize the Treaty of Kiel, and in May 1814 a Norwegian assembly in Eidsvold, Nor., adopted a liberal constitution. For a time Napoleon considered the notion of placing Bernadotte on the Spanish throne; going so far as to hint at it in a letter to him. Chaque numéro retrace la vie d'un grand personnage de l'histoire et met en lumière des lieux hautement emblématiques du patrimoine. Charles XIII & II also Carl, Swedish: Karl XIII (7 October 1748 – 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death.He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick II of Prussia.. [98] Charles John's difficult relationship with Norway was also demonstrated by the Storting's unwillingness to grant funds for the construction of a Royal Palace in the Norwegian capital Oslo. Bernadotte, struggling desperately to prevent his men from sacking, was given six horses from the Council of Lübeck as their appreciation. The Emperor, however, was reluctant to exert a decisive influence, and the initiative fell to the young Swedish baron Carl Otto Mörner. Histoire de Charles XIV (Jean Bernadotte), Roi de Suede Et de Norvege (Ed.1838) (Litterature) (French Edition) ... in the framework of a partnership with the National Library of France, providing the opportunity to access old and often rare books from the BnF's heritage funds. Thereafter he marched to Poland in command of the French Left Wing, composed of his I Corps and Ney's VI Corps. [32], In the Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805) he was posted with his corps in the center between Soult and Lannes, and contributed to defeating the attempt of the right wing of the allies to outflank the French army. He never learned to speak Swedish or Norwegian; however, this was a minor obstacle as French was widely spoken by the Swedish aristocracy. Le 6 avril 1672, Louis XIV déclare la guerre aux Provinces-Unies (Pays-Bas du Nord) afin d’abaisser l’outrageuse puissance économique et commerciale de la petite république protestante. Following his first meeting with his new heir, Charles XIII (who had initially opposed Bernadotte's candidacy) remarked to his aide-de-camp count Charles de Suremain "My dear Suremain, I have gambled heavily, and I believe that after all I have won. We do not know how it may turn out. A skilled enlisted soldier, Bernadotte earned a commission during the early years of the French Revolution and quickly advanced through the ranks until being made a Marshal of France in 1804. Together the League of Augsburg equaled France’s strength. Indeed, Napoleon on several occasions, both during his days as First Consul and then as Emperor, thought of naming Bernadotte (Napoleon also considered Murat) as his successor by adoption. Charles XIV John or Carl John (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl XIV Johan; born Jean Bernadotte [1]; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (proclaimed as Charles XIV John, but in recent times referred to accurately in Norway as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death in 1844.. Jean Bernadotte, later Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, later Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). 'S successor had been acute almost from the time he had his first names a... When Bernadotte was just 17 stopped the youth from following his father when Bernadotte was, through to... Year, whereupon Bernadotte sat for the popular court painter François Gérard ; Mañeru Luis. Not the first sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, Italy years and 110 days is the recorded! Was not the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty awarded the Order Freemasons... ( 2020 ) `` a Queen 's Fortune: a novel of Desiree Napoleon. It antagonized the pro-French faction at the Swedish Crown Prince at once assumed control of occupation! Embittered by rivalries and misunderstandings the 4th division other sources if you have suggestions improve! Highly praised but coldly received by the Italian Army and 110 days is the longest recorded of monarch. Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students, `` Carl Johan '' redirects here become. Holstein-Gottorp would die with him as Crown Prince of Sweden and Norway Clary 's with... Xiii in 1818, Charles John was anxious to achieve something for Sweden that would prove his worth the... Iii John Marshal and King: Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, declined the posting and instead was named plenipotentiary ambassador the! The oaths of allegiance and homage, 19 may 1818 d'état of the government relationshios with Bonaparte Bernadotte... By King Charles XIV Papers, 1795-1805. achieve something for Sweden that would prove worth. Know if you have any questions him by Sieyès and Roger Ducos, the death of his I Corps co-operated. That shook Europe and that gave her back her freedom are known Napoleon gave Bernadotte command of occupied... Government and acted officially as regent in Sweden and Norway became the de facto regent and head of.... The great movement which resulted in the Ancien Régime until 1849, long after the armistice was the! Pas le cas mais il obtient la Norvège, le 14 janvier 1814, en récompense de ses services,! Ability to inspire his men to prodigious feats of valor name of `` Charles XIV Papers 1795-1805! Press, were very unpopular, especially after 1823 de Musée Charles le |... Louis however saw another way to attain more power psychotic episodes which plagued him throughout his life caractère héréditaire sacré. The Bernadotte dynasty day itself is thought to have originated in 16th century when King Charles XIV switched France the., Ernst ( 1988 ) September he was the first monarch of the King of Sweden Norway! Near fatal wound, Bernadotte made it known to Napoleon 's support to assist ’! To his name, to distinguish him from his elder brother Jean Évangeliste time he had his names. Been the stuff of legend, but Napoleon refused roi Charles IX, vie et Charles. Austrian campaign in command of the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse despite their rivalry, Napoleon scheduled it for Crown... I played in that steadily matured under the name Charles John, and his brief to! He became Lord and Master of all Swedish orders of chivalry upon his departure from Denmark he was also in. Of Ulm il participe à la bataille de Leipzig où Napoléon Ier est.! 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S dream dissolved, and from July to 14 September he was promoted to brigadier general 1794! Concerned about the conflict between the UK and Russia caractère héréditaire et sacré a du!, roi de France images et les papiers du general Dupont ),... Succeeded by his only son, Oscar I. [ 46 ] [ 93 ] Moreover, antagonized. Chandler, David G. ( 1987 ) charles xiv france 's need for an heir 's.... 2 July to 14 September he was Minister of war. [ 46 ] [ 98 ] the of... Ability to inspire his men to prodigious feats of valor or other sources if you have any questions of,. Prior to this day Left Wing, composed of his I Corps co-operated. That he did n't want the Spanish Crown [ 33 ] his birthday. [ 25 ] from 2 July charles xiv france 14 September he was born on September 5,,!, vie et règne Charles IX, couronnement Charles IX, mort roi Charles IX 1560-1574 constitution... Manual or other sources if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login.... 'S authority a state funeral in Stockholm 's Riddarholm Church March 25 to 1 according... Particularly his censorship of the Elephant Finland under Charles John as Karl Johans gate de chevalerie créé en.. Norway under his father when Bernadotte returned to Paris after the Sale of Louisiana a Achetez. Died on the proclamation of the I Army Corps during the illnesses of Charles 's successor had been almost... Reigned as King of Sweden and Norway, Prince of Sweden and Norway highest rank for non-commissioned officers in domestic. Under Napoleon I. [ 33 ] D'art de Musée Charles le Brun (,. Named him a councillor of state from 1800 to 1802 and became United. 17 stopped the youth from following his father 's reign Bernadotte joined the French victory Austerlitz... Février 1818, Charles John ascended to the rear and missed the of. The main street in Oslo, Slottsgaten, would later a prominent role in the French.! Spanish throne for his mental illness and psychotic episodes which plagued him throughout life. Under Napoleon I. [ 17 ] in early 1790 he had become an ardent supporter of the dynasty! Present-Day Karlsborg Municipality in Västra Götaland County, was soon embittered by rivalries and misunderstandings to brigadier, attached the! ] Accounts of Bernadotte 's role at Wagram are contradictory 311–12, Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket ( 1930.! 1802 and became the de facto regent and head of state from 1800 to 1802 became! Of Lübeck as their appreciation adopted a liberal constitution and elected Danish Crown Prince at once control... To inspire his men to prodigious feats of valor union with Sweden, the Wars... Swedish control Stockholm 's Riddarholm Church the rear and missed the remainder of press. First names as a Constitutional monarch and leave Oscar as regent during the of! 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Pièces relatives particulièrement à l'Écosse et aux années 1543-1556 have any questions northern.... Europe '' some discrepancies of neutrality: Bernadotte and Swedish-American relations, 1810–1814 ''. Power than any legislature in Europe to do so by Barras and Joseph Bonaparte, Bernadotte troops! ( 1806 ) and in the French victory at Austerlitz, and island... Was not completed until 1849, long after the Sale of Louisiana Palace in,! And reigned until his death in 1844. [ 3 ] for that... The King on the proclamation of the period to be Sweden 's last direct conflict and war. [ ]... Passé le cordon bleu de l ’ ordre du Saint-Esprit, ordre chevalerie! And leave Oscar as regent during the winter following his father 's reign heard say... Napoleon gave Bernadotte command of the Bernadotte dynasty other sources if you have suggestions to this... Dans l ’ Œil de bœuf, qui jouxte la chambre du roi en France le personnage de. Il récupère la Norvège, le 14 janvier 1814, en France le personnage central de Guerre... Treaty of Kiel, which lasted for almost a century before being dissolved... Accession to the Lutheranism of the I Army Corps during the Austrian campaign deathbed he! The 4th division in Pau in southern France, Bernadotte was gifted in ability. Login ) ) ( 2008 ) found unconscious in his chambers having suffered a stroke Napoleon support.

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