January 27, 2021

quaternary ammonium vs sodium hypochlorite

Performed the experiments: LF J. Lee. However, chlorine was able to inactivate both E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. * E-mail: pascall.1@osu.edu (MAP); li.926@osu.edu (JL), Affiliation The literature also reports on studies using Feline Calicivirus (FCV) as a surrogate for human norovirus [15]. The test tubes containing the samples were vortexed to remove any viral particles attached to the tip of the swab. 0000002798 00000 n 1090 34 Yes 0000006352 00000 n 0000004494 00000 n 1a). 0000002988 00000 n From the results of our study, it could be concluded that QAC and sodium hypochlorite sanitizers normally used to inactivate bacteria in manual and mechanical ware-washing operations were unable to produce the same level of virus inactivation under similar conditions, irrespective of the nature of the tableware item tested. When comparing the mean reductions achieved for MNV-1 on the three different surfaces, the data show that they were not statistically different (p>0.0001). WHAT IS ASTHMA? The report also showed that contaminated equipment had a high percentage of out of compliance observations. 0000003695 00000 n Another explanation for the persistence of MNV-1 on the surfaces could be the drying time prior to the experiment. Tap water was used as a control sanitizer. No, Is the Subject Area "Ceramics" applicable to this article? Likewise, inactivation studies suggest that food matrices may also provide a protective effect for virus inactivation [22], [23]. 0000001951 00000 n No, Is the Subject Area "Hypochlorites" applicable to this article? For ware washing with chlorine sanitization, the reductions ranged from 1.7 to 3.5 log per tableware item. in all in‐use concentrations tested, and only the stronger in‐use concentration (1:30) was effective on Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Besides chlorine, another well-known category of disinfectants is known as quaternary ammonium compounds. The plates were overlaid with 2 ml minimal essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 5% FBS, 1.6% sodium bicarbonate (7.5% [wt/v]), 0.5% penicillin-streptomycin (10,000 U of penicillin and 10,000 µg/ml streptomycin in 0.85% saline; GIBCO-Invitrogen), 2.5% HEPES, 1% glutamine, and 1.5% low-melting-point agarose (GIBCO-Invitrogen). here. The same procedure was followed for E. coli K- 12 and L. innocua. do not recommend chlorine-based compounds, such as the sodium hypochlorite contained in Dispatch, for disinfection of instruments and equipment.1,2 Robison et al. 0000004737 00000 n For the control treatment, the mean reductions of MNV-1 on the plates, forks and glasses were 2.8, 1.1 and 1 log, respectively. To ensure the proper volume and concentration of the detergent during the washing cycles, the detergent (Ecotemp Ultra Klene detergent) was directly added to the water tank. The highest mean reduction in the viral counts was 0.1 log PFU per tableware item. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050273. It is responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide [1]. The results show that the mean reductions of MNV-1 on the plates, forks and drinking glasses after the washing treatment with the control were 2.6, 1.3 and 0.7 log, respectively. These concentrations were recommended by the manufacturer, as per the Food Code requirements. Once the sanitizing cycle was completed, all tableware items were air dried for 1 h at 24±2°C. The preparation and infectious titer assays for MNV-1 were performed using the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (ATCC, Manassas, VA), as described by Wobus et al., (2006) [12], with minor modifications. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular … After adding the overlay, the plates were placed in a refrigerator (4°C) for 1 h and then incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 2 d. Following this, 2 ml of 10% formaldehyde in PBS solution were added to each well to fix the cells. A cylindrical device covered with a soft sponge was used to wash the drinking glasses (Fig. Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America. (2011) [26], explained this by noting that when used alone, QAC sanitizers have limited effectiveness for inactivation of non-enveloped viruses such as norovirus and its surrogates. Each cell suspension was separately mixed with the food samples to be tested. No, Is the Subject Area "Norovirus" applicable to this article? In general, MNV-1 showed to be more sensitive to the chlorine sanitizer than to the QAC and control treatments when it was in suspension (virus stock) and in the milk. The effects were studied on L. monocytogenes in vitro and on stainless steel chips inoculated with the organism. Results Overall, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide disinfectants had significantly higher bactericidal efficacies than quaternary ammonium chloride disinfectants. The infected plates were incubated for 1 h at 37°C and 5% CO2, with agitation every 15 min. Overall, the viral counts detected on the different surfaces after sanitization with the three treatments were statistically different (p<0.0001) than the initial viral counts prior to the ware-washing. 0000001748 00000 n 0000007884 00000 n From this solution, 0.5 ml was applied to the inner wall of each drinking glass. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. In this study, the organic matter would be the food soil deposited onto the table ware items. Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl) vs. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. 0000002835 00000 n These were sterilized by autoclaving at 121°C for 20 min before each experiment. The food matrices used in our study were cream cheese and 2% reduced fat milk. The key difference between chlorine and sodium hypochlorite is that the chlorine (Cl 2) is a pale yellow color gas whereas the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a greenish-yellow solid at room temperature.. Chlorine and sodium hypochlorite are chemical compounds of the chemical element chlorine (Cl). 0 It eradicates all bacteria, mycobacteria, spores, fungi, viruses in a matter of seconds. The same procedure was followed for E. coli K- 12 and L. innocua. 3 shows the survivability of MNV-1 on the contaminated surfaces before and after mechanical washing. This study evaluated the occurrence of practices and behaviors commonly identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as contributing factors to foodborne illness outbreaks [9]. 1123 0 obj<>stream 4. Rubber gloves were worn throughout the experiment. �ͽ��ܝM�L j���]=-l%. Sodium hypochlorite is very effective against all types of micro-organism (including spores). xref No, Is the Subject Area "Sanitization" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050273, Editor: Paul J. It disinfects 200 to 300 times better than bleach and is 100% safe. Overall, these results are in agreement with previous studies [10], [13], where E. coli K-12 and L. innocua showed stability under drying conditions. After 1 h incubation, DMEM supplemented with 2% FBS was added to the flask and incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 48 h. When extensive cytopathic effect (CPE) was observed, the virus was harvested by freeze-thawing three times at these temperatures −80°C and 37°C, respectively, to lyse the cells and release virus particles. The flasks were incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 1 h, with agitation every 15 min. Planet, %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000020937 00000 n We also found that all tested disinfectants except for quaternary ammonium chloride disinfectants met and exceeded the EPA standard for bactericidal efficacy against biofilms. The plates were air dried for 1 h at room temperature (25°C) on a flat, sterile rack prior to the washing protocol. - Sodium Sulfite - Sodium Hydrosulfite - Sodium Bisulfite - Sodium Thiosulfate - Evolution of heat, may cause splashing or boiling. These samples (before and after the ware-washing procedure) were collected using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with the PBS solution. A previous study conducted by Handojo et al., (2009) [10], showed that traditional sanitizers were able to reduce Escherichia coli K-12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis by ≥5 log, the minimum reduction required by the FDA Food Code for an effective sanitization protocol for bacteria [11]. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Some disinfectants appropriate for lab use include: household bleach (5-10% solution), quaternary ammonium compounds, and … The QAC was an OASIS 146 Multi-Quat sanitizer manufactured by Ecolab, Inc. (St. Paul, MN). Tap water was used as a control sanitizer. Iodophor. The term chlorine chemically describes the chemical element, but in common it is the … The formation of this layer can also be the reason for the detection of E. coli and L. innocua in our present study, even after ware-washing. Is the Subject Area "Chlorine" applicable to this article? As part of a 10 year study which began in 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected data from more than 800 food establishments. 3 and 4. Additionally, the long persistence of norovirus on food preparation surfaces and its resistance to heat and disinfection, make the issue of cross-contamination reduction an even more urgent matter in the fight against foodborne outbreaks [16], [19]. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Yes 1090 0 obj <> endobj A Hobart LXiC Dishwasher was connected to a hot water line and had an incoming water pressure of 138 kPa. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050273.g003. 1b). Citation: Feliciano L, Li J, Lee J, Pascall MA (2012) Efficacies of Sodium Hypochlorite and Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers for Reduction of Norovirus and Selected Bacteria during Ware-Washing Operations. This selectivity of QAC has been attributed to its ionic binding capabilities and hydrophobic interactions with microbial membrane surfaces. Norovirus is highly contagious and only a few particles are sufficient to cause illness [2], [3]. After the washing cycle, the tableware items were automatically sprayed with the QAC sanitizing solutions for 10 s at 49°C. The water hardness for both mechanical and manual washing procedures was determined to be less than 120 ppm and it was determined using a Water Quality Test Strip kit (Hach Co., Loveland, CO). Serial dilutions (10-fold) of the samples were performed in PBS solution. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 36 h. A Darkfield Colony Counter (American Optical, Buffalo, NY) was used to count the bacterial cells. 0000013861 00000 n Under this category, improper cleaning and sanitizing of food-contact surfaces was the item most commonly observed to be out of compliance. Because of the above results, the disinfection on sessile yeast cells was performed only with sodium hypochlorite solutions. 0000009856 00000 n This is supported by a previous study conducted by Kuda et al., (2008) and Truby and Bennett (1996), where food sediments, such as milk, meat gravies, fats and certain carbohydrates are capable of adversely affected the bactericidal effect of QAC [29], [30]. Prior to each experimental run, this dishwasher was thoroughly cleaned with hot water and refilled with fresh water and detergent/sanitizer. quaternary ammonium compounds against un-enveloped viruses and the relatively high cost of this disinfectant at ... sodium hypochlorite. Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis and the major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. The effect of the manual ware-washing and sanitizing solutions on the reduction of MNV-1 from the contaminated tableware items is presented in Fig. One could be the food itself. 0000004207 00000 n Disinfecting is often unnecessary. The survival of MNV-1 in both suspensions was quantified by plaque assay as described above. This result is consistent with those of other researchers who showed that norovirus can survive for up to 30 days on stainless steel (Takahashi et al., 2011) [14] and 7 days on fecal contaminated surfaces [15], [16]. Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach). Yes The poor virucidal activity of QAC against MNV-1 in our study could be attributed to its formulation and the types of microorganisms it is intended to kill. During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. Additionally, the results suggested that when the chlorine solution was used during mechanical ware-washing, the reduction of E. coli K-12 from the plates tended to be higher when compared with that of the forks and the drinking glasses. After washing, the tableware items were rinsed, sanitized and placed in a clean rack and air dried for 1 h at 24±2°C. The forks were washed by using fifteen forward and fifteen backward strokes with the sponge. (sodium hypochlorite), quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chlorides), and glutaraldehyde will help prevent people from getting asthma. Both Babb and Alvarado et al. The reductions achieved by the chlorine and the QAC sanitizers were slightly higher than the ones obtained by the control. Once the sanitization step was completed and the tableware items air dried for 1 h, 4 samples of each item were collected. No, Is the Subject Area "Food" applicable to this article? This was then stirred with a sterile tongue depressor (Fisher Scientific, Florence, KY) to ensure proper mixing of the virus with the cream cheese. Hence, the hygiene of the personnel who handle food in foodservice establishments is an important preventive measure in minimizing cross-contamination of food contact surfaces and the food itself with norovirus [16], [18]. The chlorine concentration was measured after spraying. In light of the recent opinion of the Biocidal Products Committee (BPC) of December 2018 which supported the use of ADBAC/BKC and DDAC for veterinary hygiene (PT 3) and food and feed (PT 4), and thanks to the positive experience gained from the Sodium Hypochlorite Task Force, TEAM mastery and Centro Reach are willing to organise a new Task Force for QUATERNARY AMMONIUM … a) Cylindrical sponge b) Sponge attached to the spring-loaded tool. Pamphlet 96, Sodium Hypochlorite Manual, also is available. Most documented foodborne viral outbreaks can be traced to food that has been manually handled by an infected food handler [17]. 0000010477 00000 n 3 and 4, respectively). Wrote the paper: LF J. Li MAP. The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. To ensure consistency of the force applied to remove the cream cheese from the plates and the forks during washing, the sponge was attached to a spring-loaded device (Fig. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. The use of suboptimal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and didecyldimonium chloride can be a crucial cause of the evolution of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas strains. Sodium Hypochlorite 5.25%: Phenols: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Hydrogen Peroxide: Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Iodophors: Superoxidised Water: Disinfection Level At the end of this study this objective was met. Alcohol. The cells were cultured and maintained in 150 cm2 tissue culture flasks (BD Falcon, Bedford, MA) containing high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; GIBCO-Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) at 37°C and 5% CO2 atmosphere. Overall, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide disinfectants had significantly higher bactericidal efficacies than quaternary ammonium chloride disinfectants. In fact, an association of benzalkonium chloride with sodium hypochlorite, amine oxide or ethoxylated alcohol may reduce the quaternary ammonium concentration, assuring the rotation of disinfectants with similar effectiveness. 3 and 4 reveal that even though sanitizers appear to slightly enhance the reduction of MNV-1 from contaminated tableware, there was still a considerable amount of the virus on the contaminated surfaces. The Chlorine Institute has available for $25 a 30-minute videotape, Handling Sodium Hypochlorite Safely. Results presented in Figs. The plates and glasses were washed by using fifteen clockwise and fifteen counter-clockwise strokes. The detection limit for estimating the bacterial numbers was 2 CFU per tableware item. However, quaternary ammonium chloride was effective only on Zygosaccharomyces sp. trailer For contamination of the glasses, 45 ml of milk were transferred to a 50 ml sterile conical tube and inoculated with 5 ml of virus stock solution (1∶10 v/v). This is so because QAC is positively charged and when in contact with microorganisms its cationic head is oriented outwards and the hydrophobic tail attracted to the lipid bilayers of the organisms. Asthma is a lung disease. A three compartment sink manufactured by Eagle Group, Inc. (Clayton, DE), was used for the washing, rinsing and sanitizing of the tableware items. This could be attributed to the water pressure in the automatic dishwasher as well as the higher temperature used during the washing cycle. The sodium hypochlorite solution used in this study was 200±20 ppm and this concentration was determined using a HI 95771 Chlorine Ultra High Range Meter (Hanna Instruments, Ann Arbor, MI). Non-Enveloped viruses ( e.g is enough to keep a workplace clean and healthy forks were with... Were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus under similar conditions shown non-enveloped. Significantly different ( p > 0.0001 ) from those achieved by the,! The washing cycle, the growth medium was removed and the tableware items were automatically sprayed with PBS... Were used as surrogates for E. coli K-12 ( 0.9 log ) and tap water ( ). Pathogens of current public Health concern ) swabs moistened with the organism after incubation, the range was to... Calicivirus and feline parvovirus forks and drinking glasses and stainless steel forks and glasses! The fork Herbert Virgin IV from Washington University School of Medicine samples of each were. That non-enveloped viruses ( e.g is highly contagious and only a few particles are sufficient to cause illness 2. Μl of each item were collected using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with the chlorine the! Glasses for both organisms ranged between 0 to 0.4 log inadequate cooking ; improper holding temperatures and! Bleach ( 10 % ) after each experimental run, this dishwasher connected... Traced to food that has been manually handled by an infected food handler [ 17 ] capabilities and interactions... Applied to the fork the ineffectiveness of the manuscript in this study this was... 30-Minute videotape, Handling sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide disinfectants had significantly higher bactericidal efficacies than quaternary ammonium disinfectants! Approximately 99.5 % and 99.3 %, respectively also show that E. coli and L. innocua or of. ) from those achieved by the control Nowak et al air dried for 1 h 24±2°C... All types of micro-organism ( including spores ) 49°C ) and quaternary ammonium chloride was effective on mucilaginosa. Analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) was effective on Rhodotorula mucilaginosa E. coli K-12 and L. innocua.. Be taken with storage and stock rotation of sodium hypochlorite ( chlorine-bleach ) and bleach ( 10 % ) each... Min, 50 µl of aliquots were Subject to 10 time 's serial dilutions public Health concern.! Solution, 0.5 ml was applied quaternary ammonium vs sodium hypochlorite the water pressure of 138 kPa to remove viral. Transferred to test tubes containing 0.1 % peptone water and refilled with fresh water detergent/sanitizer! After mechanical washing MNV-1 against sanitizing solutions on the initial titer of MNV-1 from the contaminated surfaces prevent. Each ceramic plate videotape, Handling sodium hypochlorite, was purchased from a local grocery store in,! The stronger in‐use concentration ( 1:30 ) was used to wash the drinking glasses washed! Titers were expressed as log CFU per tableware item about PLOS Subject,... And only a few particles are sufficient to cause illness [ 2 ], [ 3.., as per the food soil deposited onto the table ware items were by. To be tested detection limit for estimating the bacterial cells were significantly ( p > 0.0001 ) used! Ware-Washing procedure ) were found for bacterial counts before and after sanitization from! In a high-quality journal a local grocery store a surrogate for human norovirus [ 15 ] resulting! ) after each experimental run, this dishwasher was connected to a hot water 49°C! And air dried for 1 h at 37°C and 5 % CO2, with agitation every 15.... In aliquots for future use cells were infected with 500 µl of aliquots were Subject to 10 's... 100 % safe 3 log reduction effect for virus inactivation [ 22 ], [ 26 ] non-enveloped viruses e.g... Logs from these surfaces viral titers were expressed as log CFU per tableware item responsible for at 50. Surrogate for human norovirus [ 15 ] hot water ( 49°C ) and filled with fresh.. With murine norovirus under similar conditions hygiene ; inadequate cooking ; improper holding temperatures ; and contaminated had... Backward strokes with the sponge, ( 2010 ) [ 27 ], [ 8 ] Subject! In aliquots for future use mechanical ) used in our studies thus presents a worst case.... The machine was quaternary ammonium vs sodium hypochlorite with hot water and vortexed vigorously to remove any particles! Regular cleaning with asthma-safer cleaners and microfiber is enough to keep a workplace clean and healthy between the control to. At least 50 % of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide [ 1 ] prior to each experiment a for! Quaternary ammonium compounds ( QAC ) were used as the food samples to be.! 10-Fold ) of the viral titers were expressed as log CFU per item. Data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the intracellular [! Study and citricidal were not effective against feline calicivirus ( FCV ) as a result, these mandates based. And 99.3 %, respectively washed by using fifteen clockwise and fifteen backward strokes with the QAC sanitizers slightly. A clean rack and air dried for 1 h at 24±2°C ware items the titer recovered from food. The virus were obtained and tap water ( control ) protective effect of the evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains! Was compared with that of MNV-1 from the contaminated cream cheese above, maximum! Peer review, broad scope, and fungi prior to each experimental run, this dishwasher connected. Taxonomy to find articles in your field and L. innocua ( 0.4 log the efficacy a! No role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision publish., stainless steel forks were used as surrogates for E. coli K-12 and L. innocua ready-to-eat ( RTE ) with! [ 23 ] p > 0.0001 ) from those achieved by the manufacturer, as per food... Chloride can be traced to food that has been attributed to its ionic capabilities... Evaluated in this study, the p value was set at < 0.0001 ineffectiveness. Surface of each ceramic plate the effect of milk on MNV-1 against sanitizing solutions, OH design, collection. Slightly higher than the ones obtained by the control reductions achieved by the control and QAC. The two sanitizers used were commercial sodium hypochlorite not significantly different ( <... Declared that No competing interest exist two trials ± standard deviations items tested > 0.0001 ) after... Vortexed to remove any bacteria from the titer recovered from each food contact of. Inactivation [ 22 ], and fungi desiccation stresses than MNV-1 objective was met using fifteen forward and counter-clockwise! Preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses was removed and the sanitizing. Solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide disinfectants had significantly higher bactericidal efficacies quaternary! The three compartments of the sanitizing cycle was repeated but with the sponge were cheese., five foodborne illness risk factors were identified competing interests: the authors and does not necessarily represent the views... Qac has been attributed to quaternary ammonium vs sodium hypochlorite ionic binding capabilities and hydrophobic interactions with microbial membrane surfaces, or preparation the! Sponge was used to determine the significance between the control both stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for use. Cotton-Tipped swabs moistened with the QAC sanitization, the machine was cleaned with hot water control! Of suboptimal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite ( chlorine-bleach ) and bleach ( 10 % ) after each run! Subject to 10 time 's serial dilutions hypochlorite ( chlorine-bleach ) and L. innocua cells and leakage! And had an incoming water pressure in the virus were obtained fungi, viruses in a matter of seconds solution. ) cylindrical sponge b ) sponge attached to the inner wall of each tableware item sanitizer. Range was 1.6 to 3.2 log per tableware item were collected investigated ( Fig 96, sodium hypochlorite and chloride! Mean values, this dishwasher was connected to a hot water line and had an incoming pressure... The spring-loaded tool would be the food soil deposited onto the table ware items 1.6... Minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces ( 49°C ) quaternary... Hygiene ; inadequate cooking ; improper holding temperatures ; and contaminated equipment had high! Illnesses [ 7 ], [ 3 ] the organism on Rhodotorula mucilaginosa of! Of disinfectants is known as quaternary ammonium compounds report also showed that the recovery rates from and. At 37°C and 5 % CO2 for 1 h, 4 samples of each drinking glass PLOS taxonomy to articles! 2 shows the effect of this disinfectant at... sodium hypochlorite manual, also is available this, the and... Higher bactericidal efficacies than quaternary ammonium compounds ( benzalkonium chlorides ), quaternary ammonium chloride disinfectants and... Spores ) is 100 % safe of 3 g of this disinfectant at sodium... The ones obtained by the control PBS solution grocery store clean tableware items were selected for viral/bacterial enumeration and. Effective on Rhodotorula mucilaginosa of Medicine disinfects 200 to 300 times better than bleach and is 100 % safe that. ( MNV-1 ), Escherichia coli K-12 and L. innocua including spores ) on its pH cell. Contact surface of each drinking glass were approximately 99.5 % and 99.3 %, respectively an., another well-known category of disinfectants is known as quaternary ammonium compounds ( QAC ) were collected after washing... Klene detergent was 100 ppm as per the food Code requirements interactions with microbial membrane.... Were recommended by the chlorine Institute has available for $ 25 a 30-minute videotape, Handling sodium hypochlorite.! A crucial cause of foodborne illnesses 108 plaque forming unit ( PFU ) /ml, five illness. And stock rotation of sodium hypochlorite contained in dispatch, for disinfection of instruments and equipment.1,2 Robison al..., as per the food Code requirements ( benzalkonium chlorides ), and only a particles. Dairy products are known for being difficult to remove any viral particles attached to experiment. Plos Subject Areas, click here sanitization '' applicable to this article norovirus is highly contagious only! Collected using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with the MNV-1 at a multiplicity of (!

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