View Test Prep - Exam 2.docx from ANTH 2401 at Richland Community College. Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs? Ed. In Media Player, t his can be achieved by selecting the "miniplayer" skin set to "skin mode". Leakey, M. G., et al (2001). We now know that ardipiths, while bipedal on the ground, had a divergent hallux, so that young animals could likely have hung on to their mothers in trees like modern primates. Based upon early hominin teeth, they were generalists like chimps, likely getting the majority of their carbohydrates and fats from fruit, protein from young leaves, and possibly fat and protein from animal matter, e.g. If Orrorin proves to be a direct human ancestor, then australopithecines such as Australopithecus afarensis (“Lucy”) may be considered a side branch of the hominid family tree: Orrorin is both earlier, by almost 3 million years, and more similar to modern humans than is A. afarensis. It was found in Ethiopia, dating 2.4-2.1 Ma. Together, they articulate with the talus (most superior tarsal bone) in a hinge joint. Which of the following statements about ancient hominins is likely true? It is most likely that the australopithecines, dating from 4.4 to 3 Mya, evolved into the earliest members of genus Homo. b) They had smaller brains than the other robust species of early hominins. A. afarensis was slenderly built, like the younger Australopithecus africanus, and is thought to be closely related to the genus Homo, whether as a direct ancestor or a close relative of an unknown ancestor. Despite at present the area is a desert, it was a mosaic of gallery forest and savanna environments, similar to those described for A. afarensis in East Africa. WW Norton Co, New York. Since then, many specimens of the genus Australopithecus have been unearthed from East Africa (Kenya and Tanzania), Central Africa (Tchad) and South Africa, all dating to between 4.2 and 2 Ma. Its resemblance to Homo is still debated. While there is some evidence that earlier species (e.g. Homo sapiens, the species to which all modern human beings belong and the only member of the genus Homo that is not extinct. ramidus (less specialized bipedalism), curved hand and foot falanges (brachiation), More aligned toe than in Ardipithecus, longer arms than legs (humero-femoral index of 83.9; 74.2 in humans and over 100 in chimpanzee and gorilla), and short stature (1.1-1 m). Those at Sterkfontein currently are dated to between 2.6 and 2.0 ma with the Mrs Ples fossil dating to around 2.0 million years. A)a big brain,big teeth,and a big face B)large molars,a big face,and a sagittal crest C)a large body,large teeth,and a sagittal crest D)a big face,large teeth,and a large body It was found in the Kenyan Rift. Additionally, a large molar fragment has been discovered at Kapsomin (Lukeyno), dated to 5.9 Ma, that shows significant differences with Orrorin and some affinities with the extant gorilla. This is slightly smaller than a modern bonobo or female common chimpanzee brain, but much smaller than the brain of australopithecines like Lucy (~400 to 550 cm3) and roughly 20% the size of the modern Homo sapiens brain. However, a fossil chimpanzee has been reported from the Kapthurin Formation, in Kenya, which may be indicative that representatives of Pan were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene (betwe… It should be understood that the genus Ardipithecus, which lived in East Africa from about 5.8 to 4.4 million years ago, is the most likely ancestor of the hominins. You are a paleoanthropologist that discovers Otzi. By studying early hominids (large, bipedal primates) that date back to millions of years, anthropologists can track the development of the human race. The sites were fossil specimens are found in Africa are usually termed Localities. Palaeomagnetic analysis of the Sterkfontein palaeocave deposits; age implications for the hominin fossils and stone tool industries. Thier occipital foramina is advanced in the cranial base, which suggests that bipedal locomotion aroused in a forested environment, well before open savanna enviroments predominated. It was not likely to had the capacity to use stone tools. Once the jaws no longer locked into place, our ancestors were free to grind their food, aiding in its digestion. The early hominins were significantly smaller on average than modern humans. The less pronounced nature of the upper canine teeth in A. ramidus has been used to infer aspects of the social behaviour of the species, which suggests that the last common ancestor (LCA) and the other African apes were characterized by relatively little aggression between males and between groups. All known material of Sahelanthropus was found between July 2001 and March 2002 at three sites: TM 247, TM 266, which yielded most of the material, including a cranium and a femur, and TM 292. The ancestors of the hominins adapted to the changing environment by becoming bipedal on the ground. Which of the following statements is likely to be true concerning Australopithecus aethiopicus? Having this in mind, let us consider the evidence, in chronological order, and what it tells us about the origin of the hominines. Which of the following is NOT a major feature of hominin bipedalism? Espasa Calpe, Madrid 2004. Our clavicles stabilize our shoulder joints for swinging and hanging. While shorter, the hallux became more robust and lost its degree of divergence and opposability, by coming into alignment with the lateral four toes, i.e. The size of the upper canine tooth in A. ramidus males was not distinctly different from that of females. c. Sahelanthropus was the earliest hominin. The action of the powerful temporalis muscle (a muscle of mastication) changed from primarily acting on the front of the jaw, allowing apes to clamp their jaws powerfully shut during fighting, to acting on the molar region for grinding food (see Figure 5.15). This was necessary for our ancestors to have made and efficiently used tools. The first metacarpal was adapted for such activity, and the intrinsic thumb muscles (within the hand versus extending from the forearm into the hand) were well-developed. Ardipithecus ramidus is represented by 17 individuals, 16 of which were found together. In the early 1970's, Mary Leakey and Tim White found bones of what were likely Australopithecus afarensis dating in the range 3.7-3.5 million years ago at a site in Northern Tanzania named Laetoli. McGraw Hill, New York. social insects (chimps and gorillas eat a lot of ants and termites) and animals caught opportunistically. It is where our spinal cord exits the cranial vault. The loss of the honing complex may have been in response to reduced competition for females as a result of male-female pair-bonding. The joint between the distal tibia and fibula is fairly immobile, so that the two bones are firmly lashed together. Adult male australopithecines were usually only about 4.3-4.9 feet tall and weighed around 88-108 pounds. Marked encephalization in the hominin lineage began with the first members of our own genus: Homo. Name: The Hominins Lab For the first part of this lab, you are going “Hominin Speed Dating”. "How the word 'hominid' evolved to include hominin." Australopithecus garhi is a 2.5-million-year-old gracile australopithecine species whose fossils were discovered in 1996 by a research team led by Ethiopian paleontologist Berhane Asfaw and Tim White, an American paleontologist. A)H.naledi seems most likely a member of the genus Homo;however,its small brain size is regarded as a primitive hominin trait more reminiscent of the australopithecines. Beauvilain Alain, 2003. We are unique in our ability to practice, produce, and pass on culture. The ancestors of the chimpanzee might be expected to resemble those of the hominines except in their locomotion. The head (proximal ball-like structure) of the hominin femur is large. The braincase, being only 320 cm³ to 380 cm³ in volume, is similar to that of extant chimpanzees. Lower jaw, LH 4 facing forward if standing or supine (face up) if lying down, with palms forward or up (see Figure 5.2—5.4). Our brains have increased in size more than four-fold, from a more chimp-sized brain (<400 cc) in the earliest hominins to a mean of ~1400 cc. AnthropologyThe earliest toothless hominin skull T he site of Dmanisi in the Eurasian republic of Georgia has yielded striking hominin, faunal and archaeological material as evidence for the presence of early Homo outside Africa 1.77 million years ago, documenting an important episode in human evolution. These tools belong to the Early Paleolithic age Oldowan Industry and include core tools made from whole stones and flake tools made from stone chips (Kooyman, 2000). However, with an efficient means of locomotion to move between forest patches when resources became depleted, hominins could continue to exploit those resources to which they were adapted. Found in the Bahr el Ghazal, near Koro Toro (Chad), 2,500 Km West of the Great Rift. 2011. While they likely traveled through open areas, we now know that the earliest hominins were exploiting forest resources, as evidenced by their thinner molar enamel, relative to later hominins. Photo a) They are the earliest known robust species of early hominins. Apes are descended from an arboreal climber from the early Miocene of Africa. Paris. Dated to 3.5-3 Ma, it only includes a mandibular fragment (mandibular symphysis). It is wide (right to left) and shallow (front to back) relative to quadrupedal monkeys, which have a narrow and deep thorax like those of dogs. The pithecus portion of the name is from the Greek word for ape. Loss of habitat and resources often leads to local extinctions. Lucy, nickname for a remarkably complete (40 percent intact) hominin skeleton found by Donald Johanson at Hadar, Eth., on Nov. 24, 1974, and dated to 3.2 million years ago. Anthropology and biology departments may offer courses in human anatomy, human osteology, forensic anthropology, and the like. The lower limb consists of the femur of the thigh, the tibia and fibula of the leg, seven tarsal bones of the ankle, five metatarsals of the body of the foot, and phalanges of the digits (three per toe and two per big toe or hallux). Ardipithecus lived between 5.8 million move our hand palm up or palm down. The species also shows a significant dregree of sexual dimorphism. McBrearty S & Jablonsky NG (2005) First fossil chimpanzee. However, a fossil chimpanzee has been reported from the Kapthurin Formation, in Kenya, which may be indicative that representatives of Pan were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene (between 0.6 and 0.5 Ma), where they were contemporary with an extinct species of Homo. A. the “straightening” of the human fingers from the curved condition found in the apes B. the modification of the pelvis into a basin-like shape C. development of curves in the human vertebral column D. the forward repositioning of the formen magnum underneath the cranium afarensis . Ape spines are not as flexible as monkeys’ spines, giving us better upper body support since we are more upright than most other primates. Encephalization in the shape of the … B environmental stresses early hominins exhibit the same genus as modern.. That a higher quality diet allowed the hominin femur is large and for... Beliefs of other cultures new capabilities for exploiting newly encountered food items as they through... In addition, reliable Homo fossil specimens are found in Africa are usually termed Localities chimpanzee. Bipedalism, other parts of the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae that... 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